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Summerall Stained Glass Window Restoration Project

Stained Glass Windows Restoration Project

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We all have our own fond memories of Summerall Chapel, which is over 80 years old now. Way back when, I remember, as a knob, that it was the coldest and quietest place on campus. Sometimes I would go in there, dump my books on a back pew, and just sit and hope for a little encouragement. Sometimes it only took a few minutes, and then other times it perhaps took a little longer.

Today, our beautiful stained glass windows are showing their age and starting to fall apart. They are in dire need of our support to repair and restore these iconic windows.

An Advisory Committee has been formed to launch a campaign to repair and restore these historic stained glass windows. Our target figure is to raise $2 million by December 31, 2023. We have an estimate from one contractor of roughly $1.6 million, but that is in today’s dollars, and experience with other projects on campus suggests that the cost will increase over time unless we can raise funds quickly. Any funds raised in excess of an approved bid will be put into the Summerall Chapel’s general operating fund.

We have executed a Memorandum of Understanding with The Citadel Foundation to secure their support of our fundraising efforts, As a result, all gifts are tax-deductible and will count toward your personal lifetime and class giving totals. You will be hearing more about this project as we move forward.

The Class of 1974 jump-started this campaign last Fall (2019) and has already raised over $179,096 toward its goal of $250,000 by December 31, 2021, , which is 71.6% of the goal for our Class. This amount will count toward the overall goal of $2 million. With that goal in mind, we will certainly need other classes to join in this effort.

We encourage you to support this project with your most generous gifts and pledges. You may support the efforts by sending a check made out to:

The Citadel Foundation
171 Moultrie Street
Charleston, SC 29409

Please note on Check FOR:
“Summerall Chapel Stained Glass Restoration Fund”

You may also make your gift securely online by visiting:

We ask that you circulate this note around to your Citadel contacts and friends to encourage them to support this time-sensitive project.

Thank you so much for your consideration and support of this critical effort!


Prior Stained Glass Restoration Project of 2004


Damage to Windows

Above picture shows damage to class of 1944 Window. Note: the Iron bars added in 2004 have not stopped the lead from breaking down and bowing of the windows.

Explanation of Stained Glass Windows

     The memorial windows of the Chapel are designed in the manner of the Gothic period and the color scheme follows that of the stained glass of the thirteenth century. The human figures, however, are in modern form, more clearly intelligible to the observer than is usual in windows in the Gothic style.

     The significance of the colors used in all the windows is as follows:

                  Blue — Truth, Constancy, Fairthfulness

                  Red  —  Love, Courage, Martyrdom

                  Gold  — Divine Wisdom, Goodness

                  Green  —  Hope, Immoritality

                  White  —  Purity

     The great chancel window is a general memorial to all Citadel men killed in action. It portrays the idea of courage and sacrifice in any great and good cause, of which the supreme example is the sacrifice of Christ.

     The windows in the façade and transepts and the clerestory window are in memory or honor of alumni, a medallion for each man. These medallions are identical in size and quality, graduate and non-graduate alike. No matter how prominent a subject may have been nor how distinguished as a cadet or alumnus, his unit is no larger or finer than any other. (The exception is the indication, by tiny “Stars and Bars” rectangles in the name-panes, of Citadel men who participated in the Civil War.) Those medallions in which name-panes are covered with opaque material honor subjects still living.

     The aisle-level series represents thirty events in the life of Christ. These windows were presented by Citadel classes in perpetual gratitude to their alma mater. The arrangement is in order of subscription and not chronologically as to year of graduation of classes.

Chancel Window

Chancel Window Description

1.Religion: Carry the Ark of the Covenant

2.Truth: Shadrack, Meshach and Abednego in the fiery furnace

3.Duty: Abraham offering up his son Isaac, in obedience to God.

4.Loyalty: Ruth and Naomi, symbolizing a great loyalty.

5.Patriotism: Nathan Hale — “I regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”

6.Courage: Psalm 27, the great hymn of courage

7.Sacrifice: The Lamb of God, representing Christ’s sacrifice for us.

8.Raphel: The archangel leader of the powers of good.

9.Sacrifice: The pelican, an ancient Christian symbol.

10.Sacrifice: Romans 12:1, a classic admonition to sacrifice.

11.Faith: An angel holding a shield bearing the Cross and Crown.

12.St. Adrian: The patron saint of soldiers. *

13.Hope: An angel holding a shield beating an anchor (Hebrews 6:19).

14.St. Maurice: The patron saint of foot-soldiers.*

15.Charity: An angel holding a shield bearing a golden heart.

16.Strength: The Archangel Grabriel, messenger-angel.

17.Praise: An angel with a harp.

18.Power: The Archangel Michael, guardian angel of the Church.

19.Prayer: An angel with a censer.

20.Light: The Archangel Uriel, guardian of the Lord’s tomb.


21.Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the End.

22.Angels with palms, symbols of victory over death.

23.Angels with trumpets, symbolic of the Resurrections.

24.The letters INRI (Iesus, Nazareni Rex Iudacorum), which were deriseively placed over the head of the crucified Christ.

25.The Greek letters IES (Iora Era Sigma) and CHR (Chi Rho), abbreviations of the name of Jesus Christ, which are used in churches as Christian symbols.

*The soldiers saints, Adrian and Maurice are classic examples of giving up life itself for the right.


Façade Window

1.Solomon building the Temple, described in 1 and 2 Corinthians.
Warren Allston Huger LeLand, 1886. Civil and hydraulic engineer.

2.The Sower, described in the parable (Matthew 13:3—8).
Robert Fulton Dukes, ex-cadet 1894. Farmer.

3.A representation of the Great Teacher.
Oliver James Bond, 1886. Scholar, educator.

4.Sacrifice and dedication, represented by a young man kneeling before an alter.
James Manville Patterson, 1888. Attorney. Served in two wars.

5.The Weaver, described in Exodus 35;35.
James Ripley Westmoreland, 1900. Textile manufacturer.

6.A young man in armor, bearing a shield emblazoned with a blue cross symbolic of Truth.
(Living Subject.) Army officer

7.“He that humbleth himself shall be exalted” (Luke 18:14).
James Thomas Carter, Jr., 1930. Aviator. A young man whose outstanding characteristics were modesty and unassuming selflessness.

8.Eli instructing Samuel (1 Samuel 3).
Charles Courtenay Tew, first-honor graudate 1846. Teacher, soldier.

9.Parable of the Faithful Servant.
Edward Willingham Bell, 1886. Banker, Mr. Bell organized and for many years guided the destinies of a savings bank, instilling into his employees his own high sense of integrity and responsibility.

10.St. Pau, typifying an intellectual, courageous leader, holding a sword, symbol of fortitude and martyrdom.
William Howe Simmons, first-honor graduate, 1890. Army officer.

11.St. John, representing a young man of lofty ideals. The eagle symbolizes flight.
John Waring Simons, Jr., 1906. Army officer, aviator.

12.Hilkiah finds the Book of Law (2 Kings 22:8)
Frank Barron Grier, 1890. Attorney

13.The young David rescuing the lamb from the wild beast (1 Samuel 17:34-35).
William Montague Nicholls, ex-cadet 1912. While visiting England in 1914, Mr. Nicholls joined the British Army, was promoted lieutenant and was killed at the Somme.

14.Elisha healing the poisoned waters (2 Kings 2:21).
Edward C. Register, 1905. Army medical officer. Color Register volunteered to aid in combatting typhus fever and fell a victim to the disease in Poland in 1920.

15.Men sent by Moses to Canaan, typifying bravery and devotion to duty.
William Osce Coleman, ex-cadet 1915. Retired Army officer disabled in war.


South Transept Window

1.Noah designing the Ark (Genesis 6:14-16)
John Frank Oglesby, 1912. Marine architectural draftsman.

2.An Archer (Genesis 49:24). Archers of Biblical times were soldiers of Athletic type. The arrows signify flight.
Walter Anderson Oglesby

3.A slinger (Judges 20:16)
Charles Durward Rogers, 1932. Athlete, aviation cadet. Mr. Rogers was an extraordinary basketball player and the designer has tried to depict this athletic qualities as well as the idea of flight.

4.A man beating a sword into a plowshare (Isaiah 2:4).
Augustus Simpson Hutchinson, ex-cadet 1859. Soldier, farmer.

5.Johoshaphat sends teachers to Judah (2 Chronicles 17:7-9).
Elliot Crayton McCants, 1886. Teacher

6.A scribe (2 Corinthians 3:3).
William Zach McGhee, 1892. Newspaper correspondent, author.

7.Jacob wrestling with the angel (Genesis 32:24-28).
Thomas Hart Law, first-honor graduate 1859. Minister. Dr. Law states in his diary that the greatest moment of his life came in his decision, after a long struggle, to be a chaplain to the Confederate Army instead of becoming a line officer.

8.A figure of a studious, thoughtful young man (1 Thessalonians 4:11-12).
Charles Seignious Brown, 1912. Accountant

9.St. Augustine, the intellectual leader of the Western Church.
William Porcher DuBose, first-honor graduate 1855. Minister, teacher, theologian.

10.“He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none: and he that hath meat, let him do likewise” (Luke 3:11).
Ellison Adger Smyth, ex-cadet 1869. Manufacturer, philanthropist.

11.Ezra goes to Jerusalem to teach in Israel (Ezra 7:9-10).
Asbury Coward, 1854. Soldier, educator

12.St. Louis, carrying out the idea of kindness, one of the subject’s chief characteristics.
James Frank Jeffords, 1914. Officer, USMC.

13.St. Luke, “the Beloved Physician” (Colossians 4:14).
Richard Green White, 1846. Physician

14.Paul exhorts Timothy (2 Timothy 2:2).
James Benjamin White, 1849. Teacher.

15.St. Martin dividing his coat with a beggar.
John Hodges David, 1914. Army officer. The design depicts generosity, a prime virtue of Lieutenant David. (This unit was provided by Dillon, S.C. Post of the American Legion, Lieutenant David was the first South Carolina Officer killed in action in World War I. A bronze tablet in his memory was placed in the sally port wall of Padgett-Thomas Barracks by the Association of Graduates of The Citadel.)


North Transept Window

1.St. Peter.
Armstrong Jolly Howard, 1886. Farmer. The design represents Mr. Howard as a lovable man of strong character.

2.St. Barnabas.
Havelock Eaves, 1890. Army officer, manufacturer, philanthropist. He is depicted here as the generous, kindly man that he was.

3.St. George, a tribune in the imperial guard of Diocletian, most unselfish in his efforts to protect the weak and oppressed.
James Wilson Riley, ex-cadet, 1931. Athlete, aviator.

4.A runner (1 Corinthians 9:24), suggesting the athletic achievements of the subject.
Edmund Lybrand Jackson, 1931. Athlete, aviator.

5.Joseph, directing the conservation of crops in Egypt (Gensis 41:33-36).
James Michael Moss, ex-cadet 1865. Scientific farmer.

6.David and Jonathan, type of perfect friendship.
Edward Bell Patrick, 1912. Banker, army officer. The design was suggested by the quotation in his biography in the cadet annual of 1912: “He was my friend, faithful and just to me.”

7.Nathanael, type of fine young manhood, depicted as being brought to Christ by Philip. “
Wendell Madison Walters, Jr., 1939. Cadet Walters died in his third-class year as a result of an injury sustained in an automobile accident.

8.St. Thomas Aquinas, “most learned of the saints and most saintly of the learned.”
(Living Subject) Teacher.

9.Gideon, the powerful warrior of Manasseh (Judges 7:16-23).
William Mason Smith, 1863. Confederate Army officer.

10.Cornelius the Centurion (Acts 10: 1-13).
Carroll D. Nance, ex-cadet 1898.

11.St. Francis of Assisi.
Lewis Simons, 1912. Army officer.

12.Ezekiel, a strong, fearless man, depicted as visualizing the erection of the Temple.
Julian Landrum Mims, ex-cadet 1893. Legislator, newspaper editor. The design suggests his activity in the development of the Greater Citadel of today.

13.Apollos, a type of learned and upright student (Acts 18:24-28).
Wilson Najeed Saleeby, 1933. Teacher

14.Galahad, “the purest of the Knights.”
James Hill Holmes, Jr., 1915. Army officer.

15.A crusader
Julius Andrew Mood, Jr., first-honor graduate 1916. Army officer, Captains Mood and Holmes were killed in action at the Second Marne, near Soissons, in July 1918.


First Clerestory Window, South Wall

1.Joshua, with Moses before the High Priest.
William Elliot Gonzoles, ex-cadet 1887. Newspaper editor. He assumed his responsibilities as a leader of men.

2.St. Christoper, the patron saint of sailors.
Albert Seamon Able, ex-cadet 1908. Superintendent of ship terminal.

3.St. Joseph, typifying a gentle, patient man.
Richard Screven Clarkson, 1889. Civil engineer. His nature and the practical side of his career are suggested in the design.

4.St. Anthony the Great, traditional exponent of manly purity.
John Owens Willson, ex-cadet 1863. Soldier, minister, educator. He endowed the “John O. Willson Ring” award, given each year to the cadet voted by his classmates as the manliest, purest and most courteous man in the graduating class.

5.Judah, the Law Giver.
Doctor Allen Spivey, 1891. Banker, legislator. He took a prominent part in legislative work in South Carolina.

6.Jubal (Genesis 4:21).
William Paul Sommerville, 1941. He died at home during Christmas furlough his first year as a cadet. Cadet Sommerville was a devoted and accomplished student of music.


First clerestory window, North Wall

1.Young man with arms upraised in suggestion of the opening line of Psalm 19.
David McLeod Bethea, 1938. He died at home soon after the end of his third-class year.
Cadet Bethea loved nature and its beauty.

James Stephen Bethea, 1907. Farmer. Like the Biblical character, he was a farmer and the victim of a wasting disease. He died after suffering years of pain borne with calm resignation.

3.A group illustrating the Beatitude, “Blessed are the merciful.”
Thomas Joab Mauldin, 1891. Lawyer, judge.

4.St. Vincent de Paul.
James Graham Padgett, 1892. Lawyer, member of the Board of Visitors of The Citadel. His paramount interest was in young people, many of whom he helped financially or in other ways.

5.Boaz (Ruth 2).
Benjamin Martin, ex-cadet 1861. Confederate Army officer, farmer.

6.St. Joseph of Arimathea.
Wade Elephare Cothran, 1859. Confederate Army officer, planter, magistrate.


Second Clerestory Window, South Wall

1.St. Chad.
(Living Subject.) In textile business.

2.St. Cedd
Wylie Evan Burnett, 1940. He died during the summer of 1938. Cadet Burnett was a young man of lofty character and high ideals.

3.St. Francis de Sales, representing a man of strength, courage and valiant spirit.
Robert McCaw Perrin, 1893. Teacher

4.St. Timothy
John W. Moore, 1990. Teacher.

5.St. Wulfstan (1009-1095) “...His love was for souls, not buildings.”
William States Lee, 1894. Hydro-electric engineer, college builder.

6.Sir Bors, Knight of the Round Table, “one of the three goodly knights whose purity of heart and spiritual graces gave them the privilege of seeing the Holy Grail.”
William Osborne Maxwell, 1939. Cadet.


Second Clerestory Window, North Wall

1.The Venerable Bede (673-675), the father of English history.
Frederick Wannamaker, ex-cadet 1890. Newspaper editor.

2.The Laborer in the Vineyard, subject of many parables in the New Testament.
Richard Furman Willingham, 1905. Salesman. In this medallion Mr. Willingham is symbolized as a man of good works.

3.St. James, author of the Epistle (James 1:1,5,6,19, 22, 27; 3:16, 17; 4:10).
John Pulaski Thomas, 1893. In mill supply business, active in church and educational work.

4.St. Silas (Silvanus in Paul’s Epistles), symbolizing loyalty
Arthur Pierson McGee, 1908. Army officer. An outstanding trait of this subject was his loyalty.

5.Sir Percival, “ of the three goodly knight whose purity of heart and spiritual graces gave them the privilege of seeing the Holy Grail.”
Clifford Bayard Seay, Jr., 1936. Banker

6.Standing figure with hands upraised, illustrating Psalm 1.
Cotesworth Pinckney Seabrook, Jr., 1934. Civil engineer.


Third Clerestroy Windows, South Wall

1.Titus, friend and assistant to Paul, illustrating the qualities of gentleness, faithfulness
loyalty outstanding in the young man memorialized.
Conrad McTerr Hundert-Mark, 1939.

2.Nehemiah, a brilliant governor of Jerusalem who rebuilt the wall of the city.
David Graham Copeland, 1903. Civil engineer.

3.Isaac, patriarch of the Old Testament
Joseph Herbert Haynsworth, 1900. Dentist, educator. His loyalty to his wife and sons is exemplified by Isaac’s devotion to his family.

4.Sir Gareth, the pure young knight of Tennyson’s “Gareth and Lynette.”
Harold Montgomery Smith, ex-cadet 1941.

5.Tubal-Cain, brother of Jubal, the forerunner of industrial engineers.
Robert Allen Elliott, Jr., 1941. Cadet.

6.Enoch, who “walked with God” (Genesis 5:24).
William Sutherland Allan, 1887.


Third Clerestory Window, North Wall

1.Hippocrates, a distinguished Greek physician regarded as the father of modern medicine and the symbol of ethical practice.
Francis Eugene Zemp, 1918. Physician

2.John the Baptist, suggesting the upright, clean-living, courageous leader.
(Living Subject.) Civil engineer, Army officer.

3.St. John the Evangelist.
John Register Lyons, 1939. Army aviator. Lieutenant Lyons, who chose death in an air accident to save others, typifies the best in mankind.

4.St. Oswald, King of Northumbria, symbolizing generosity and courage.
Ashley Spencer LeGette, 1913. Army officer.

5.Sir Gawain, one of the Knights of the Round Table.
Kenneth Linford Aumuller, 1943. Cadet

6.St. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, builder of Lincoln Cathedral, symbolizing character, executive ability and interest in structural engineering.
Thomas Isaac Weston, 1902. Civil engineer.


Clerestory window, south transept

1.Moses, with the Tablets of the Law.
Burt Williamson Andrews, 1892. Government legal advisor. His character, education
and interest in law are suggested by the Great Hebrew leader and lawgiver.

2.St. Philip, the Deacon.
Walter Scott Strong, Jr., ex-cadet 1940. Army officer. Mr. Strong helped to establish the various Communion services in the cadet chapel.

3.Galen, who clarified the theories and practices of medicine of his time.
Edward White DeTreville, ex-cadet 1861. Physician. Confederate soldier.

4.Hezekiah, the great king of Judah.
Peter Fayssoux Stevens, first-honor graduate 1849. Teacher, soldier, bishop. He commanded the cadet battery that fired on the “Star of the West” January 9, 1861. After distinguished service in the Confederate Army, he entered the ministry. (This unit was provided by Lt. S. W. Woodruff, Class of 1942, of Norwich, N.Y.)

5.St. Andrew, typifying the subject’s devotion to his duty and friends, and his loyalty and unselfishness throughout his life.
Carl Francis Myers, Jr., 1914. Teacher.

6.Melchisedek, outstanding as priest and King of Salem.
Ellison Capers, 1857. He rose to the rank of brigadier general in the Confederate Army before his 28th birthday and, later, to the Episcopal bishopric of South Carolina.


Clerestory Window, North Transept

1.St. Stephen, martyr, exemplar of great courage.

         Walter Clinton Goodpasture, 1940, Captain, USMC. He gave his life
         saving others from death and injury in a tragic fire.

2.Sir Hector, a Knight of the Round Table, an example of the noblest and finest
in young manhood.

         Joseph Plowden Cole, 1940, Military aviator. Lieutenant Cole was killed in
action in the South Pacific.

3.“He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal”
(John 4:36).

Carroll Drayton Nance, Jr., ex-cadet 1930. Farmer. Mr. Nance’s first love
was agriculture.

4.Nathan, distinguished prophet, preceptor, royal adviser and biographer.
John Peyre Thomas, first-honor graduate 1851. Teacher, soldier, historian. He
taught at The Citadel, served the Confederacy as a colonel, was the first
superintendent of the renascent college and wrote an authoritative history
of its first fifty years.

5.Jeremiah, prophet who discharged his duties with great diligence and fidelity.
David Gaillard Dwight, 1890. Teacher, business man. He was president of The Citadel Alumni Association during the period of development of the Great

6.Baruch, amanuensis, inseparable friend of Jeremiah.
Thomas Petigru Lesesne, 1901. Journalist. He served two terms as president
of the Association of Graduates of The Citadel, 1916-1918. Later, he was
secretary of the Association under David G. Dwight, Class of 1890. Their joint
work for The Citadel is suggested in the window design.


Class Window

South vestibule                                                        North vestibule
(entrance)                                                               (Jenkins Baptistry)
1846—”Come unto me, all ye that labor”                   1909—”Let us go into the house of

1917—Faith                                                            1934—Hope            

Life of Christ Series

Nave, South Wall                                                      Nave, North Wall

No. 1 1910—The Annunciation                                   No. 10 1905—First Disciples Won

No. 2 1911—The Nativity                                           No. 11 1900—The Wedding at Cana

No. 3 1891—Presentation in the Temple                     No. 12 1890—Christ and Nicodemus

No. 4 1892—Visit of the Magi                                    No. 13 1908—The Woman of Samaria

No. 5 1886—The Flight into Egypt                             No. 14 1906—The Sermon on the Mount

No. 6 1895—Christ among the Doctors                      No. 15 1918—The Calling of Matthew

No. 7 1893—John the Baptist Preaching                    No. 16 1937—Stilling the Tempest

No. 8 1912—The Baptism of Christ                            No. 17 1938—Healing the Blind

No. 9 1914—The Temptation                                     No. 18 1939—Feeding the Five Thousand

North Transept, West Wall South Transpect, West Wall

No. 19 1940—The Transfiguration                              No. 22 1919—Entry into Jerusalem

No. 20 1941—The Raising of Lazarus                        No. 23 1942—The Last Supper

No. 21 1894—Anointing by Mary                               No. 24 1943—Gethsemane

South Transept, South Wall North Transept, North Wall

No. 25 1915—Before Pilate                                      No. 28 1922—The Burial

No. 26 1944—The Road to Calvary No. 29 1923—The Resurrection

No. 27 1936—The Crucifixion No. 30 1945—The Ascension

     The entire glass installation in the Chapel is the work of the Pittsburgh Stained Glass Studios of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The chief designer, Howard G. Wilbert, had direct charge of all creative design for this fine achievement.

Stained Glass Committee Meeting for March 2nd, 2021

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